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CHEMICALS USED IN PULP & PAPER MANUFACTURING AND COATING

 

CHEMICALS USED IN PULP &PAPER MANUFACTURING AND COATING

While there are about 3000 or so different types of chemicals which "can be used" in papermaking, in practice only about 200 individual chemicals are typically used, each satisfying a specific need.

Common Name Chemical Name Chemical Formula Used For Specific Density Other Characteristics
Agalite or Talc Silicate of Magnesia MgO-32%, SiO2-62% It gives paper a greasy or soapy feel. and enables it to take a high finish. 2.6 - 2.8 A natural fibrous form of talc, gray in color.
AKD Alkyl Ketene Dimer C4H4O2 Sizing
Alabaster or Annaline Anhydrate Calcium Sulfate CaSO4 Paper Loading material    
Alganic Acid Alganic acid or Na-Alginate Na-(C6H8O6)n Coating and surface treatment
Alum Sulfate of Alumina Al2(SO4)3.18H2O For alkaline sizing along with Rosin 1.62
Albarine Natural Sulfate of Lime CaSO4.2H2O - 100% A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials. 2.4
Ammonium Bisulfite Ammonium Bisulfite NH4HSO3 Used in sulfite pulping 2.03  
Ammonium Sulfate Ammonium Sulfate (NH4)2SO4 Coagulant agent for river water    
Ammonium Zirconium Carbonate (AZC) Ammonium Zirconium Carbonate CH2O3NH3Zr Used as in-solubilizer, crosslinker & hardener 1.36 AZC is a clear, usually colorless solution, having an odor of ammonia and a pH of approximately 9.5. As a carbonate, it will react with acids, and so should not be used in coating systems below pH 7. In storage, it is stable for up to six months.
Amylase Amylase   Enzymes used in paper mill to accelerate the hydrolysis of starch.    
Anthraquinone Anthraquinone C14H8O2 Added to white liquor (alkaline cooking liquor) to improve pulp yield and to increase the rate of delignification. 1.44 yellow crystalline powder
Anti-Foam/Defoamer To prevent foam (anti-foam) or to destroy it once it has formed (defoamer). Surface active, but highly insoluble in water.
Asbestine Silicate of Magnesia MgO-32%, SiO2-62% It is used as a loading agent in paper manufacture, particularly for blotting papers and board. 2.6 - 2.8 A mineral compound of almost pure fibrous magnesium silicate, which possesses physical characteristics between those of talc and asbestos.
APE Alkylphenol Ethoxylates CH3(CH2)n(C6H4) (OCH2CH2)m-OH Used as cleaning agents or surfactants
ASA Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride Sizing
Barium Carbonate Barium Carbonate BaCO3 Paper coating pigment    
Barium Sulfate Barium Sulfate BaSO4 - 100% Used as a pigment 4.2-4.5 White insoluble powder.
Barytes, Barite or Baryta Barium Sulfate BaSO4 - 100% Used as filler 4.2-4.5
Blanc Fixe Barium Sulfate BaSO4 - 100% Used as a base for watercolor pigments and as a filler in paper. 4.2-4.5 Powdered barium sulfate
Cadmium Yellow Cadmium Sulfide CdS Pigment    
Calcium Bisulfite Calcium Bisulfite Ca(HSO3)2 Used in Sulfite pulping    
Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 Pulp bleaching. Now mostly replaced by Sodium Hypochlorite    
Calcium Sulfite Calcium Sulfite CaSO3 White coating pigment or paper filler

 

   
Canary Yellow or Chrome Yellow Lead Chromate PbCrO4 Yellow Pigment    
Casein A milk phosphoprotein   Binder or adhesive in coating formulation    
CMC Carboxy Methyl Cellulose Sizing
Cationic  Starch     Wet and dry end additive   Positively charged starch
Caustic Lye or Caustic Soda or Lye Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Pulping and to maintain pH
Chalk, Whiting, or Paris White Precipitated Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 - 100% Filler particularly with acidic sizing coating pigment 2.7-2.9 High Brightness &Opacity
Chalk (French or Spanish) Silicate of Magnesia 4MgO+5SiO2+H2O; MgO - 33%; SiO2 62% 2.6-2.9 A soft white compact talc
China Clay, Kaolin Hydrated Silicate of Alumina Al2O3-40%; SiO2-46%; H2O-13% Filler, Coating 2.4-2.7 Brightness 70-90%
Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine Dioxide ClO2 In Pulp Bleaching 2.86
Chlorine Gas Chlorine Cl2 In Pulp Bleaching and water treatment 2.86 Polyaluminum Silicasulate (PASS)
Dolomite Calcium Magnesium Carbonate CaMg(CO3)2 Filler, Coating 2.86
DTPA Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetate C14H33N3O10 Used for chelation (removal of transition metals from pulp).
EDTA Ethylene Diamine Tetra acetic Acid C10H16N2O8 Used for chelation (removal of transition metals from pulp).
Enzyme     Deinking    
FSA Formamidine Sulphuric Acid or
Thiourea Dioxide
CH4N2SO2 Post Deinking bleaching    
Guar Gum Natural Polymer Dry Strength Additive cationic derivative
Gypsum or Mineral White or Plaster Natural Sulfate of Lime CaSO4.2H2O Gypsum board, 2.4
Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 In Pulp Bleaching 3.13-3.4
Hypochlorous Acid Hypochlorous Acid HOCl In Pulp Bleaching    
Lime Calcium Oxide CaO Alkaline Pulping Process Chemical Recovery, Bleaching 3.13-3.4
Lime Stone Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 To make Lime Precipitated CaCO3 is used as Filler and in Coating
Magnesium Bisulfite Magnesium Bisulfite Mg(HSO3)2 Used in Sulfite pulping    
Magnesite Magnesium Carbonate MgCO3 -100% Filler for cigarette paper 2.5
Milk of Lime Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 For causticizing of green liquor
Milk of Magnesia Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2      
Oxygen Oxygen O2 In Pulp Bleaching    
Ozone Ozone O3 In Pulp Bleaching
Rosin Abietic Acid C19H29COOH Sizing
Rosin Soap Sodium Abietate C19H29COONa Sizing
Salt Cake Sodium Sulfate Na2SO410H2O Makeup chemical in sulfate pulping chemical recovery (Na2SO4. ---Na2S) 2.4
Soap/ Fatty Acid     Deinking    
  Sodium Bisulfite NaHSO3 Used in Sulfite pulping    
Soda Ash Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 Makeup chemical in alkaline pulping chemical recovery (Na2CO3 +Ca(OH)2 ---2NaOH+CaCO3) 2.43-2.51
Sodium Aluminate Sodium Aluminate Na2Al2O4 Used in conjunction with alum to control pH    
Sodium Bisulfite Sodium Bisulfite NaHSO3 An acid type cooking liquor chemical component sometimes used to neutralized residual chlorine in the pulp during the bleaching process.    
Sodium Chlorate Sodium Chlorate NaClO3 Used to generate Chlorine Dioxide    
Sodium Dithionite Sodium Hydrosulfite Na2S2O4 Bleaching 2.20 White crystalline powder with weak sulforous odor
Sodium Hypo-chlorite Sodium Hypo-chlorite NaOCl Pulp bleaching    
Sodium Peroxide Sodium Peroxide Na2O2 Bleaching    
Sodium Silicate Sodium Silicate Na2SiO3 In waste paper deinking for wetting, peptization, ink dispersion, peroxide stabilization.    
Sodium Sulfide Sodium Sulfide Na2S Active chemical in kraft/sulfate cooking liquor    
Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Thiosulfate Na2S2O3 Bleaching    
Sodium tripolyphosphate Sodium tripolyphosphate Na5P3O10 Dispersant    
Starch . Comprised of glucose units linked together by oxygen bridges called glycosides Wet and dry end additive
Sulfur Sulfur S To make HSO3 for bi-sulfite pulping
Surfactant Used in deinking,Used as debonders in fluff pulp manufacture.  
Titania
Anatase
Titanium Dioxide
Titanium Dioxide
TiO2
TiO2
Filler to increase the opacity and brightness of paper. Used in coating also.
Grade of titanium oxide paper coating pigments which is water dispersible.
3.84-4.26

Various surface sizing agent are

  1.  Modified starches,

  2. Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA),

  3. Styrene Acrylic Emulsion (SAE),

  4. Styrene Acrylic Acid (SAA),

  5. Ethylene Acrylic Acid (EAA),

  6. Gelatin and

  7. Polyurethane (PUR).

In 2010 world paper industry used 31.7 Million Ton pigments for filling and coating.  It is about 8% of paper on weight basis. Following is a breakup of various pigment usage.

Pigment Coating Filling Others Total
  Million Ton Million Ton Million Ton Million Ton
Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) 10.4 4.6 1.5 16.5
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) 0.6 5.8 0.3 6.7
Clay 4.9 1.7 0.1 6.7
Talc 0.2 1.4 0.0 1.6
Others 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.3
Total 16.3 13.6 1.9 31.8


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