CHEMICALS USED IN PULP & PAPER MANUFACTURING AND COATING

 

CHEMICALS USED IN PULP &PAPER MANUFACTURING AND COATING

While there are about 3000 or so different types of chemicals which "can be used" in papermaking, in practice only about 200 individual chemicals are typically used, each satisfying a specific need.

Common Name
Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Used For
Agalite or Talc
Silicate of Magnesia
MgO-32%, SiO2-42%
It gives paper a greasy or soapy feel. and enables it to take a high finish.
AKD
C4H4O2
Sizing
Alabaster or Annaline
Anhydrate Calcium Sulfate
CaSO4
Paper Loading material
Alganic Acid
Alganic acid or Na-Alginate
Na-(C6H8O6)n
Coating and surface treatment
Alum
Sulfate of Alumina
2(SO4)3.18H2O
For alkaline sizing along with Rosin
Albarine
Natural Sulfate of Lime
CaSO4.2H2O - 100%
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials.
Chlorine Dioxide
Chlorine Dioxide
ClO2
In Pulp Bleaching
Chlorine Gas
Chlorine
Cl2
In Pulp Bleaching and water treatment
Dolomite
Calcium Magnesium Carbonate
CaMg(CO3)2
Filler, Coating
Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetate
C14H33N3O10
Used for chelation (removal of transition metals from pulp).
EDTA
Ethylene Diamine Tetra acetic Acid
C10H16N2O8
Used for chelation (removal of transition metals from pulp).
 
 
Used in Deinking
FSA
Formamidine Sulphuric Acid or Thiourea Dioxide
CH4N2SO2
Post Deinking bleaching
Guar Gum
Natural Polymer
 
Dry Strength Additive
Gypsum or Mineral White or Plaster
Natural Sulfate of Lime
CaSO4.2H2O
Gypsum board
Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2
In Pulp Bleaching
Hypochlorous Acid
Hypochlorous Acid
HOCl
In Pulp Bleaching
Lime
Calcium Oxide
CaO
Alkaline Pulping Process Chemical Recovery, Bleaching
Lime Stone
Calcium Carbonate
CaCO3
To make Precipitated CaCO3, is used as Filler and in Coating
Magnesium Bisulfite
Magnesium Bisulfite
Mg(HSO3)2
Used in Sulfite pulping
Magnesite
Magnesium Carbonate
MgCO3 -100%
Filler for cigarette paper
Milk of Lime
Calcium Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
For causticizing of green liquor
Milk of Magnesia
Magnesium Hydroxide
Mg(OH)2
 
Oxygen
Oxygen
O2
In Pulp Bleaching
Ozone
Ozone
O3
In Pulp Bleaching
Rosin
Abietic Acid
C19H29COOH
Sizing
Rosin Soap
Sodium Abietate
C19H29COONa
Sizing
Salt Cake
Sodium Sulfate
Na2SO410H2O
Makeup chemical in sulfate pulping chemical recovery (Na2SO4. ---Na2S)
Soap/ Fatty Acid
 
 
Deinking
Sodium Bisulfite
Sodium Bisulfite
NaHSO3
Used in Sulfite pulping
Soda Ash
Sodium Carbonate
NaHSO3
Makeup chemical in alkaline pulping chemical recovery (Na2CO3 +Ca(OH)2 ---2NaOH+CaCO3)
Sodium Aluminate
Sodium Aluminate
Na2Al2O4
Used in conjunction with alum to control pH
Sodium Bisulfite
Sodium Bisulfite
NaHSO3
An acid type cooking liquor chemical component sometimes used to neutralized residual chlorine in the pulp during the bleaching process.
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Chlorate
NaClO3
Used to generate Chlorine Dioxide
Sodium Dithionite
Sodium Hydrosulfite
Na2S2O4
Bleaching
Na2S2O4
Bleaching
Sodium Peroxide
Sodium Peroxide
Na2O2
Bleaching
Sodium Silicate
Sodium Silicate
Na2SiO3
In waste paper deinking for wetting, peptization, ink dispersion, peroxide stabilization.
Sodium Sulfide
Sodium Sulfide
Na2S
Active chemical in kraft/sulfate cooking liquor
Sodium Thiosulfate
Sodium Thiosulfate
Na2S2O3
Bleaching
Sodium tripolyphosphate
Sodium tripolyphosphate
Na5P3O10
Dispersant
Comprised of glucose units linked together by oxygen bridges called glycosides
Wet and dry end additive
Sulfur
Sulfur
S
To make HSO3 for bi-sulfite pulping
Surfactant
 
 
Used in deinking,Used as debonders in fluff pulp manufacture.
Titania
Titanium Dioxide
TiO2
Filler to increase the opacity and brightness of paper. Used in coating also.
Anatase
Titanium Dioxide
TiO2
Grade of titanium oxide paper coating pigments which is water dispersible.

Various surface sizing agent are

  1.  Modified starches,

  2. Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA),

  3. Styrene Acrylic Emulsion (SAE),

  4. Styrene Acrylic Acid (SAA),

  5. Ethylene Acrylic Acid (EAA),

  6. Gelatin and

  7. Polyurethane (PUR).

In 2010 world paper industry used 31.7 Million Ton pigments for filling and coating.  It is about 8% of paper on weight basis. Following is a breakup of various pigment usage.

Pigment
Coating
Filling
Others
Total
 
Million Ton
Million Ton
Million Ton
Million Ton
Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)
10.4
4.6
1.5
16.5
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)
0.6
5.8
0.3
6.7
Clay
4.9
1.7
0.1
6.7
Talc
0.2
1.4
0.0
1.6
Others
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.3
Total
16.3
13.6
1.9
31.8


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